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PAX Installation Guide

About his Document

This document is intended for technical personnel, system administrators and network administrators. It explains how to install and configure a Personal AXS Guard VPN appliance.

PAX

Examples used in this Guide

All setups and configuration examples in this guide are executed as an advanced administrator. Some options are not available if you log in as a full administrator or a user with lower access privileges.

As software development and documentation are ongoing processes, the screenshots shown in this guide may slightly deviate from the current user interface.

Before You Begin

Environmental Safety

This product may contain substances which are hazardous for human health and the environment. To reduce the risk of any hazardous substances being released into the environment and to reduce the depletion of natural resources, we encourage you to use appropriate recycling systems.

Such systems reuse or recycle most end-of-life materials in a safe way. The crossed-bin symbol invites you to use such systems. Further information on collection, reuse and recycling is available from your local or regional refuse administration center.

recycle

PAX Model Overview

There are 5 hardware models:

  • AG-1192: PAX Road Warrior.

  • AG-1296: Home Office (still supported, but discontinued).

  • AG-1497: Home Office.

  • AG-1694: Small Office.

  • AG-I122: Industrial AIO (all-in-one).

AG-1296 Warranty Notice

Important

Do not press the reset button on the back panel of the AG-1296 model. Removal of the protective seal automatically voids the product warranty and will necessitate a replacement.

old PAX model

Hardware Specifications

AG-1192 Road Warrior

PAX RW

Feature Specification
CPU QCA9331, 400MHz
Memory DDRII 64MB
Storage 16MB Nor Flash
Wireless Frequency 2.4GHz
Transmission rate 150Mbps
Protocol 802.11 b/g/n
Power input 5V/1A, USB Power Supply
Power consumption <1W
Dimension, Weight 82 X 24 X 11mm, 10g

AG-1497 Home Office

PAX HO

Hardware Specs

Hardware Features

Interface

  • 4 X 10/100/1000Mbps LAN Ports

  • 1 X 10/100/1000Mbps WAN Port

  • 2 X USB 2.0 Port

Buttons

  • WPS/Reset Button

  • Wireless On/Off Switch

  • Power On/Off Button

External Power Supply

12VDC / 1.5A

Dimensions
(W X D X H)

9.6 x 6.4 x 1.3 in. (243 x 160.6 x 32.5mm)

Antenna

3 external detachable dual band antennas (RP-SMA)

Wireless Features

Wireless Features

Wireless Standards

IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n

Frequency

2.4GHz & 5GHz

Signal Rate

  • 5GHz: Up to 450Mbps

  • 2.4GHz: Up to 300Mbps

EIRP

<20dBm

Reception Sensitivity

  • 300M_2.4G: -70dBm

  • 270M_2.4G: -70dBm

  • 195M_2.4G: -71dBm

  • 130M_2.4G: -74dBm

  • 54M_2.4G: -79dBm

  • 6M_2.4G: -94dBm

  • 450M_5G: -64dBm

  • 405M_5G: -64dBm

  • 270M_5G: -67dBm

  • 195M_5G: -70dBm

  • 130M_5G: -73dBm

  • 54M_5G: -79dBm

  • 6M_5G: -92dBm

Guest Network

  • 2.4GHz guest network × 1

  • 5GHz guest network × 1

Temperature and Humidity Requirements

Feature Specification
Operating Temperature 0°C - 40°C (32°F - 104°F)
Storage Temperature -40°C - 70°C (-40°F - 158°F)
Operating Humidity 10% ~ 90% non-condensing
Storage Humidity 5% ~ 90% non-condensing

AG-1694 Small Office

PAX SO

Hardware Features

Hardware Features

Model Name

PAX Small Office

CPU

Intel Atom C2358

PCH

N/A

Memory

DDR3/L SODIMM 1333MHz Memory (1 Slot)

Ethernet

Ports GbE Ethernet 4 Ports

Bypass Segment(s)

N/A

USB Interface

USB2.0 x2

Console

RJ-45 Console x1

Power Supply Unit (PSU)

24W Adapter

Dimensions

165(W)×105(D)×43(H)mm

Weight

0.6kg

Operating Environment

Temperature: 0 - 40℃

Humidity Tolerance

20 - 90% RH(No Condensation)

Certifications

FCC CE UL

AG-I122 Industrial AIO

AG-I122 Industrial AIO

Hardware Specifications

Hardware Specifications

Model Name

PAX AG-I122 Industrial AIO (all-in-one)

CPU

Intel Celeron processor N3350

Memory

1x 204-pin DDR3L 1866 MHz SO-DIMM (Max. 8GB)

Storage

1 x Half-size mSATA, 2x Mini PCIe Slots, 1x SIM Slot

Cooling

Fanless design, passive cooling

Interfaces

1x COM or CANbus, 2x USB, 2x GbE LAN

WiFi

  • 1 x Full size Mini Card slot for Module with USB and PCIe Interface

  • 1 x SIM Card Socket

  • 2 x Antennas

  • 2.4GHz

Power

  • 12-24VDC Wide Range Power Input

  • OVP, UVP, OCP, RPP Power Protection Design

Dimensions

31mm (1.22”) (W) x100mm (3.93”) (D) x125mm (4.92”) (H)

Weight

0.3kg

Mounting Options

  • Din-rail mounting

  • Wall mounting (optional)

Operating Environment

  • No wide temperature -20°C ~ +70°C

  • Wide temperature -40°C ~ +70°C (Optional)

Humidity Tolerance

10 - 95% RH(No Condensation)

Certifications

Passed CE with FCC testing

Monitoring

Embedded Monitoring Software for IoT

Features and Concepts

Central Management and PKI

The hosts involved in an SSL VPN connection rely on digital certificates for identification and encryption purposes. In terms of certificate types, there are client and server certificates. Each type has its purpose and characteristics. Only PAX units with a valid client certificate are allowed to connect to the corporate network.

System administrators must use the AXS Guard’s built-in PKI to sign, manage and distribute valid PAX certificates; certificates signed by a commercial CA are not recommended.

PKI

Why we advise against using a commercial CA

When private services - such as VPN access - are provided, it is recommended to use a private CA, such as the built-in CA.

Public CAs will issue certificates for anybody, while the built-in CA insures only a select group of people (or PAX devices) have access. Therefore access to the PAX server needs to be secured with certificates issued by the built-in Certificate Authority.

The use of a commercial CA is also very inconvenient if you have a lot of clients to manage. If a commercial CA is used for the server certificate, then you will be forced to stay with the same commercial CA to sign the client certificates. In case you switch certificate vendors, you will be forced to reconfigure all PAX configurations.

Besides client certificates, the following PAX settings are also managed on the AXS Guard appliance:

  • The administrator and user passwords required to log in to the web-based administrator tool of PAX units.

  • PAX network settings, such as IP addresses, routes, NAT rules and DNS servers.

  • PAX DHCP server settings.

  • Wireless network settings, in case users are connecting to the PAX unit from a PC equipped with a wireless network device.

  • Firewall policies which govern traffic through the VPN tunnel, as well as traffic towards the Internet.

  • Application control policies.

Firewall Scenarios

There are two possible firewall scenarios:

  • The VPN connection is established: the HQ AXS Guard VPN appliance pushes firewall policies to the PAX unit of the user. These policies govern network traffic from the PAX unit’s LAN towards the Internet as well as traffic going to the corporate network. System default firewall policies only accept ICMP traffic and connections to the AXS Guard support center. Additional policies have to be added manually. See the firewall guide for additional information.

  • The VPN connection is down: By default, PAX units are configured to block incoming connections. In this state, PAX units behave like classic home network routers. All traffic towards the Internet is allowed, traffic coming from the Internet is dropped, except ICMP traffic and remote support connections.

Important

Restrict corporate network access to what is specifically needed by PAX clients. This improves security in case a client is hijacked or compromised, e.g. if infected with a trojan virus.

Application Control

The application control system allows application-layer detection of protocols, regardless of the port being used. This means that it is possible to both detect known protocols on non-standard ports, e.g. http traffic on ports other than 80, and also the opposite, e.g. detect Skype traffic on port 80. The system will also detect and block access to certain file types, such as multimedia files (if enabled).

Application Control

Important

System administrators should unblock applications and protocols which need to be accessed via the VPN tunnel, e.g. SSL traffic. All protocols and applications are blocked by default. PAX clients which are configured to access the Internet via the AXS Guard proxy server are subject to the web access application control policy. Go to Web Access > Proxy Server to configure the application policy for the proxy server.

DHCP

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an application protocol that enables a PAX unit to dynamically assign IP addresses to computers and other devices in its network.

DHCP simplifies network administration because software automatically keeps track of IP addresses so that administrators don’t have to. Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs) use DHCP to assign IP addresses to their clients.

NAT-Traversal

Purpose and Definition

PAX allows you to easily connect peers that are connected to a Network Address Translated network segment of a gateway.

UPnP and NAT-PMP

UPnP (Universal Plug’n'Play) enables programs running on a host to automatically configure port forwarding on the PAX. UPnP basically allows a program to open ports that are necessary for its operation, without any warning or intervention from the system administrator. For this reason, there is a security risk associated with enabling UPnP on the PAX. Technically, a worm or malware could use this function to compromise your LAN’s security.

It is therefore recommended to manually configure port forwarding whenever possible and disable UPnP. However, in some cases dynamic port forwarding may be required if manual port forwarding becomes impractical.

NAT-PMP is a protocol similar to UPnP supported by a number of Windows and Linux applications.

DNAT and Port Forwarding

Destination network address translation (DNAT) is a technique for transparently changing the destination IP address of an en route packet and performing the inverse function for any replies. DNAT is commonly used to publish a service located in a private network on a publicly accessible IP address. This use of DNAT is also called port forwarding.

WAN to LAN

This option may be enabled if the WAN interface of the PAX unit is connected to one of the main router’s LAN ports, a.k.a. cascading.

In this case, the WAN interface of the PAX unit will be assigned an IP address in a private range by the main router. By default, computers that are connected to the LAN of the main router will not be able to communicate with computers in the LAN of the PAX unit and vice versa because they are part of separate networks.

Enable this option to allow such communications. If enabled, you must add the LAN network(s) of the main router to allow communications between the separate LAN segments.

WAN2LAN

SNAT and Masquerading

Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) is a NAT type used to change the source IP address of packets.

Masquerading is a NAT type which is used to change a packet’s source IP address. For all new connections, the source IP address is looked up, based on the outgoing interface of the packet, and subsequently altered (masqueraded). Reply packets are automatically "demasqueraded" and returned to the original source IP addresses.

SNAT and Masquerading

VPN Failover

In computing, failover is the capability to switch over automatically to a redundant or secondary computer server, system, or a network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the primary server, system, or network. Failover occurs automatically and is generally a seamless process.

If you have a site with 2 AXS Guard appliances in a high availability (HA) configuration or a single AXS Guard appliance equipped with multiple Internet devices (Internet Redundancy system), you can configure PAX units to automatically try alternate IP addresses in case the primary VPN connection is failing.

Failover can also be applied at the protocol level; PAX units support UDP and TCP. The default behavior is set to auto, which means that a UDP connection will be attempted first. If it fails, the PAX unit will automatically try to establish a TCP connection. If alternate IP addresses have been configured and the VPN protocol type is set to auto, the PAX unit will try to establish a VPN connection in the following order:

  1. IP address 1 on UDP

  2. IP address 1 on TCP

  3. IP address 2 on UDP

  4. IP address 2 on TCP

  5. IP address X on UDP

  6. IP address X on TCP

This provides the flexibility to use UDP on one VPN server and TCP on another. However, PAX units will take longer to recover from a failing VPN connection; if the UDP connection towards the first server fails, units will first try to establish a TCP connection with the same server, before they switch to the second server.

If a connection is made to the second server, UDP will be attempted first. In case a specific VPN protocol is selected, the failover occurs without delay, as only the selected protocol is used.

Example: Maintenance of master system in HA cluster

Assume that you have a HA cluster and that the master system is down for maintenance. If configured, the PAX unit will automatically try to establish a VPN connection with the slave system, which is listening on a different IP address.

Example: Selecting UDP as the VPN protocol

Assume you have configured the PAX unit to use UDP only. The PAX unit will connect to the first IP address using UDP. If the connection fails, it will immediately switch to the second IP address, without attempting to establish a TCP connection with the first IP address.

Wake-on-LAN

Wake-on-LAN, commonly abbreviated as WOL, is an application which allows a dormant PC connected to a PAX unit to be activated and used remotely. Its functionality is dependent on:

  • The Wake-on-LAN functionality being present and enabled on the PC.

  • Your network infrastructure being able to support and allow the transmission of wake-up packets (for example over network switches and firewalls).

Please consult your PC and network hardware documentation for further guidance on these dependencies.

WOL

Wireless Access Point

The following encryption types are supported on Personal AXS Guard:

  • WPA2 Enterprise CCMP Encryption

  • WPA2 PSK CCMP Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 PSK AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise TKIP+AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 PSK TKIP+AES Encryption

  • WEP 128 bit Encryption

Info

The encryption types are listed from strongest to weakest, in descending order.

Supported Protocols

UDP

PAX units rely on the OpenVPN protocol and use UDP Port 1194 to establish VPN connections with the AXS Guard VPN server.

UDP port 1194 is the port number that is officially assigned by the IANA for OpenVPN. It is a fast protocol, but offers no error control mechanisms and guaranteed delivery, unlike TCP. UDP is very suitable for stable Internet connections.

TCP

Although UDP is the standard protocol for OpenVPN, TCP is also supported. Furthermore, PAX units can be configured to automatically detect the VPN protocol configured on the server side.

TCP is the preferred option if a PAX unit is located in a remote area and is likely to have an Internet connection of a quality inferior to modern standards. The TCP protocol offers error correction mechanisms and is therefore more reliable and suitable than UDP for unstable Internet connections, but it also produces more overhead.

Bypassing Firewall Restrictions

OpenVPN is an ideal candidate for connecting out of restrictive corporate networks. PAX units sitting behind a firewall which is beyond the control of a system administrator can be configured to bypass UDP restrictions. This is achieved by using a tunnel which turns UDP traffic into encrypted TCP traffic using a raw socket.

image

User Authentication

System administrators have the possibility to enforce user authentication for PAX VPN connections.

Note that this option is currently only supported by the PAX Road Warrior and is intended to protect the device against theft or loss. Extra authentication also protects your corporate network against unauthorized access in case of loss or theft.

Lost or stolen road warrior units should be disabled ASAP on the AXS Guard appliance and have their certificates revoked.

The following user authentication methods are supported:

  • AXS Guard username and password
  • LDAP back-end authentication
  • RADIUS authentication
  • 2FA DIGIPASS

System Administration

PAX units are administered via a secure web-based administration tool (HTTPS).

Administrator User Levels

There are two user levels; the admin and the user level.

  • The admin level is required to configure system-critical settings, such as certificates and IP address(es) of AXS Guard VPN server(s) on the Internet.
  • The user level is limited to stopping and starting the VPN connection, initiating a remote support connection and rebooting the PAX unit.

Remote Support

Users can request remote support via the web interface of the PAX unit. By clicking on the support button, a secure connection is initiated towards the AXS Guard support center, which enables our support engineers to remotely access the PAX unit for troubleshooting. As an alternative, we can configure any PAX unit so that it has a permanent secured connection to our service center.

Context-sensitive Help

Help is always available on the AXS Guard appliance if you get stuck.

help

Server-Side Configuration

Introduction

In this chapter, we explain how to configure the AXS Guard VPN server, so that PAX units can automatically download their configuration and establish a connection with corporate HQ.

The configuration steps must be executed in the provided order. Note that the AXS Guard CA must be initialized to configure the PAX server.

Feature Activation

To access the PAX menu, the PAX feature must be activated on your AXS Guard appliance.

  1. Log in to the AXS Guard appliance.

  2. Navigate to System > Feature Activation

  3. Expand the VPN tree.

  4. Enable the Personal AXS Guard feature and update your configuration.

FA

Server and Client Certificates

Use the AXS Guard built-in CA to issue PAX client and server certificates. See the AXS Guard PKI manual for a detailed explanation of the PKI feature. Go to PKI > Certificates to issue client and server certificates.

Important

Certificates issued by commercial CAs are not recommended, as explained in Central Management and PKI.

PAX Certificates

Connection Settings

  1. Log in to the AXS Guard appliance as an administrator.
  2. Go to VPN > PAX > Server.
  3. Configure the VPN server as explained below.

PAX Server Options

Network Settings

Option

Description

Enable PAX Server

Enables and starts the PAX server.

Server Binding Options

Select the appropriate server binding option. See the context-sensitive help on the appliance for additional information. The PAX server will bind to all interfaces by default.

Protocol

PAX units rely on the OpenVPN protocol and use UDP Port 1194 by default to establish VPN connections with the AXS Guard VPN server. TCP is also supported.

Support HTTPS Firewall Passthrough

Allows PAX units to connect to TCP port 443 as a fallback mechanism when sitting behind a firewall which is beyond your control and where UDP traffic on port 1194 is blocked.

In case TCP is selected, the int-sslvpn NAT port redirection rule will automatically be activated. With UDP, an additional UDP-in-TCP tunnel will be created to encapsulate UDP traffic in order to traverse the firewall. Also see the section about bypassing firewall restrictions.

Dead Peer Detection

Option

Description

Delay

The number of seconds between keep-alive checks. 5 seconds is the system default.

Timeout

If the client does not reply to the PAX server within the specified period, the connection will be reset. 10 seconds is the system default.

VPN Device Properties

Option

Description

IP Range

The range of IP addresses that is distributed to the PAX clients. Use the CIDR notation, e.g. 10.255.254.0/24. Make sure the range is not used elsewhere in your network to avoid routing issues.

Allow same LAN subnets

If enabled, PAX units can be configured with the same Remote LAN IP / Subnet. During the configuration of such units, an additional subnet needs to be specified.

Server Authentication

  1. Select the server authentication tab.

  2. Configure the certificate as explained in the table below.

PAX Server Authentication Options

Option

Description

Server Certificate

Select the server certificate for the PAX server. Go to PKI > Certificates to create or import a server certificate.

Current Certificate

Shows the certificate details of the selected server certificate.

Adding PAX Clients

  1. Go to VPN > PAX > Clients.

  2. Click on Add New and enter the settings as explained below.

  3. Save your configuration.

Important

  • Go to PKI > Certificates to generate a client certificate before your add a PAX client.
  • Certain configuration tabs will only appear if the corresponding option has been enabled.

General Settings

General Settings

Option

Description

Name

Enter a unique name for the PAX unit. The name will appear in the PAX client overview.

Description

Enter a description for the unit, e.g. the name of the owner or the location of the PAX unit. Descriptions are optional, but useful if you have a lot of clients to manage. Even though this is an optional field, we recommend using a sensible name to facilitate the configuration and management of your PAX units. The description will also appear in the PAX client overview.

Hardware Type

Select the hardware type of the PAX unit. 5 types are available:

  • AG-1192

  • AG-1296

  • AG-1497

  • AG-1694

  • AG-I122

Each type has its own hardware specifications.

Enable Unit

Check to allow incoming connections from the PAX unit. Uncheck to prevent the unit from connecting to and accessing your network.

Enable DHCP

Check this option to enable the DHCP server on the PAX unit. If enabled, the PAX will automatically assign IP addresses to its clients in the specified range.

Enable Wi-Fi

Check this option to allow wireless connections to the PAX unit.

Enable NAT

Check this option to configure NAT rules for the PAX unit, e.g. to forward traffic to certain ports or IP addresses of computers connected to the LAN of the PAX unit. This option is disabled by default.

PAX Administration

PAX Administration

Option

Description

PAX Admin Password

This password is required to access the web-based administrator tool of the PAX unit to configure essential settings, such as the client certificate, the certificate passphrase and the IP address or FQDN of the corporate AXS GUARD appliance.

PAX User Password

Enter a password for user access to the web-based administrator tool of the PAX unit. Access will be limited to (re)connecting or disconnecting the VPN.

Auto-start VPN

This option is enabled by default. If checked, the VPN connection is established automatically when powering on the PAX unit. If unchecked, the VPN needs to be started manually by logging in to administrator tool of the PAX unit.

Require User Authentication

This option is disabled by default. If enabled, the PAX unit will restrict VPN connectivity to the users listed in the next field. We highly recommend to enable this option to protect your network against unauthorized access in case a PAX Road Warrior unit is lost or stolen. Lost or stolen units should be disabled ASAP and have their certificates revoked. Go to Authentication > Services to configure the authentication policy of the PAX server.

Restrict to Users

List of users who are authorized to establish a VPN connection after successful authentication. If no specific user is selected, all users listed under Users & Groups > Users will be allowed to establish a VPN connection, which is the system default configuration.

Notes

Use this field to enter important notes and general information about the PAX unit. This is an optional field.

Network & Routing Options

Network Tab

Option

Description

Remote LAN IP/Netmask

Enter the LAN IP and subnet mask of the PAX unit. Use the CIDR notation, e.g. 192.0.2.1/24. Use this IP address to log in to the web-based administrator tool of the PAX unit.

Translate Remote LAN

Translate the remote LAN to a different IP subnet. Enable this option if you want to use the same subnet for multiple PAX units, for example:

  • Remote LAN IP: 192.168.1.10/24

  • Translate Remote LAN: enabled

  • HQ Subnet: 172.16.1.0/24

In the example above, clients in the LAN of the PAX unit all have an IP address in the 192.168.1.0/24 range. When connecting from HQ to machines in the LAN of the PAX unit, you must replace 192.168.1 with 172.16.1, e.g. 192.168.1.10 becomes 172.16.1.10.

HQ Subnet

Subnet to which the LAN of the unit is translated. Use this subnet to connect to the LAN of the unit from HQ.

WAN to LAN

Enable this option if the WAN interface of the PAX unit is connected to one of the main router’s LAN ports, a.k.a. cascading.

In this case, the WAN interface of the PAX unit will be assigned an IP address in a private range by the main router. By default, computers that are connected to the LAN of the main router will not be able to communicate with computers in the LAN of the PAX unit and vice versa because they are part of separate networks.

Enable this option to allow such communications. If enabled, you must add the LAN network(s) of the main router to allow communications between the separate LAN segments. Use the CIDR notation to add a network, e.g. 192.0.2.0/24.

Source Network

This field is only available if you enabled the WAN to LAN option. Add WAN networks that are allowed to connect to the LAN of the PAX unit. Use the CIDR notation, e.g. 192.0.2.0/24

Route all Client Traffic through VPN

If enabled, all client traffic, including Internet traffic, will be routed over the VPN connection. If you disable this option, you will need to add the corporate networks that should be reachable by the clients in the LAN of the PAX.

Only reroute traffic towards the following Networks

Add the corporate network(s) that should be available through the VPN connection. Use the CIDR notation, e.g. 192.0.2.0/24 This option is disabled by default.

Name Servers

Name Servers and DHCP

Option

Description

Bypass AXS GUARD DNS

Leave this option unchecked to use the AXS GUARD appliance as the primary DNS server for VPN connections. Enable to use other DNS servers, e.g. a Microsoft DNS server in the corporate network. This option is disabled by default.

DNS Server IP Address

Enter the IP address of the DNS server to be used for the VPN connection. Multiple DNS servers can be added.

Use WINS Server

Enable to enter the IP address of the WINS server in the corporate network. WINS (Windows Internet Name Server) is Microsoft’s implementation of the NetBIOS Name Service(NBNS), a name server and service for NetBIOS computer names. This option is disabled by default.

WINS Server IP Address

Enter the IP address of the WINS server in your corporate network.

Important

When the VPN connection is down, PAX clients will fall back to their own DNS configuration, e.g. the DNS server of the ISP.

DHCP Options

DHCP Options

Option

Description

Domain

Enter the domain suffix of the corporate network, e.g. example.com. This suffix is automatically appended to unqualified hostnames in DNS queries. For example, a DNS query for myhost will return the IP of myhost.example.com.

Start IP Address

Enter the first IP address of the DHCP address pool to be assigned to PAX clients, e.g. 192.0.2.2.

Number of DHCP Clients

Enter or select the number of IP addresses to be made available in the DHCP address pool.

End IP Address

Shows the last IP address of the DHCP address pool based on your selection.

MAC to IP Mappings

Forces the DHCP server of the PAX to assign a specific IP address of the DHCP address pool to a specific PAX client. This provides extra security, as VPN access will be restricted to the specified client(s), rather than allowed to all PAX clients with a valid IP.

  • Hardware Address: Enter the MAC address of the PAX client.

  • IP Address: Enter the IP address of the PAX client

  • Description: Optional description for the PAX client, e.g. Office PC.

Wi-Fi Options

Wi-Fi Options

Option

Description

Enable

Check to enable Wi-Fi. Note that hardware restrictions apply.

Channel

Wireless networks based on the 802.11b and 802.11g standards transmit their signal in a narrow radio frequency range of 2.4 GHz. The 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi signal range is divided into a number of smaller bands or "channels," similar to television channels. Select the desired Wi-Fi channel (1-13).

The same channel should be configured on the client. Be advised that depending on your country or region, the use of some channels may be restricted.

In the US, channels 1-11 are allowed, whereas in most of European countries, channels 1-13 can be used. In Spain however, only channels 10 and 11 are allowed.

Wireless networks based on the 802.11a standards operate on a different 5 GHz band. The band is also divided into channels, but is much more restricted and regulated. Select the desired Wi-Fi channel (36, 40, 44, 48, 149, 153, 157, 161 or 165), in accordance with FCC and local regulations.

Channel Width

Select the channel width to be used by the wireless radio controller. Normally, a width of 20MHz is used, as specified in the 802.11abg standards.

The wireless-n specification however, allows to bond neighboring channels into a larger band, increasing the maximum data rate. In order to achieve 150 Mbps and more, a channel width of 40 MHz is required. Use the auto select option to automatically choose the maximum available bandwidth. Busy wireless networks or overcapacity of the radio band may prevent channel bonding from being used at all.

SSID

The SSID (Service Set Identifier) is the name of the wireless network to be broadcasted by the PAX unit. All wireless devices attempting to communicate with the PAX must use this SSID. Windows clients equipped with a wireless network interface usually detect this SSID automatically.

Encryption Type

The encryption to be used for the wireless communication between the clients and the PAX unit. The list starts with the strongest variant and ends with the weakest variant (WEP).

WPA2 Enterprise CCMP Encryption is the system default.

Supported Types:

  • WPA2 Enterprise CCMP Encryption

  • WPA2 PSK CCMP Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 PSK AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 Enterprise TKIP+AES Encryption

  • WPA/WPA2 PSK TKIP+AES Encryption

  • WEP 128-bit Encryption

Secret Key

The secret passphrase to be be entered on the client(s) to connect to the wireless network. The passphrase is hidden by default when entered. Click on A to view the password as you type.

If you selected WEP encryption, a secret key of at least 26 characters is recommended.

Firewall Policies

Firewall Options

Firewall

Option

Description

VPN Traffic

Firewall policies which govern access to corporate and other networks which are accessible through the VPN. Go to Firewall > Policies for an overview of available policies or to add new policies. If application control is enabled on your system, make sure to allow access to protocols and applications needed by your VPN users. The system policy blocks all traffic by default, including SSL traffic.

Other Traffic

Firewall policies which apply outside the VPN connection, i.e. access to the Internet or other networks which are not accessible through the VPN. This option is not available if all client traffic is routed through the VPN (See the Route all Client Traffic through VPN option under the Network tab. Go to Firewall > Policies for an overview of available policies or to add new policies.

Important

Only the following firewall policies can be selected for the PAX unit:

  • Outside Tunnel Firewall Policies: only fwd-dynamic policies (i.e. dynamic policies containing rules of the type through AXS Guard are valid. These policies define access to services on the Internet when the VPN tunnel is down.
  • Tunnel Firewall Policies: only fwd-dynamic and sec-dynamic policies can be selected. The fwd- policies define access through the corporate AXS Guard appliance towards its secure LAN, its DMZ zone and optionally the Internet. The sec-dynamic policies allow access to services running on the corporate AXS Guard appliance. Firewall rights can be restricted to a specific IP address or range. Use the CIDR notation to specify a range, e.g. 10.0.0.0/24. Additionally, an IP address can be assigned to a specific client in the secure LAN of the PAX unit, based on its MAC address and the DHCP options configured for the PAX unit.
  • Any dynamic firewall policy not mentioned above is not suitable to configure a PAX unit.
  • Incoming and outgoing network devices specified in the fwd-dynamic policies do not apply to PAX units.

Network Address Translation

Automated NAT
  1. Enable Auto NAT-T.
  2. Select the desired NAT type.

PAX NAT Configuration

NAT Type

Description

Enable Automated NAT (PAX version 2.0 or later)

Allows you to select the automated NAT protocols if checked.

UPnP NAT Traversal

(Universal Plug’n’Play) enables programs running on a host to automatically configure port forwarding on the PAX. UPnP basically allows a program to open ports that are necessary for its operation, without any warning or intervention from the system administrator. For this reason, there is a security risk associated with enabling UPnP on the PAX. Technically, a worm or malware could use this function to compromise your LAN’s security. It is therefore recommended to manually configure port forwarding whenever possible and disable UPnP. However, in some cases dynamic port forwarding may be required if manual port forwarding becomes impractical.

NAT Port Mapping (NAT-PMP)

NAT-PMP is a protocol similar to UPnP and is supported by a vast number of Windows and Linux applications.

DNAT and Port Forwarding

PAX NAT Settings

Parameter

Description

Description

A description for the new NAT rule, e.g. mail.

Source IP

The Source IP or subnet to be matched. Use the CIDR notation to specify a subnet. If left empty, the rule applies to any source IP.

Protocol

The protocol to be matched. Select the appropriate protocol from the drop-down list (TCP or UDP).

Coming to IP

The destination IP to be matched. Leave this field empty if you have a public IP address that is dynamically assigned by your ISP.

Port

Enter the port number to be matched, e.g. 25 (for SMTP traffic).

Destination IP

The IP address of the host to which matching traffic must be forwarded. Only one IP address may be entered, e.g. 192.168.1.100.

Destination Port

Traffic will be forwarded to the specified port.

Control Buttons

  • Add: Use this button to add a NAT rule after entering your settings.

  • Clear: Clears the data that has been entered in the NAT rule fields.

SNAT and Masquerading

SNAT and Masquerading

Parameter

Description

Description

A description for the new NAT rule, e.g. ssh.

Destination IP

SNAT will be performed for any packet that matches this destination IP or network. Use the CIDR notation to specify a network, e.g. 192.168.0.1/24. If left empty, SNAT will be performed for all outgoing traffic.

Protocol

The protocol to be matched. Select the appropriate protocol from the drop-down list (TCP, UDP or Any).

Port

The port of the destination device / network that must be matched.

Coming from IP

SNAT will only be applied if network packets contain the specified source address, e.g. 80.90.100.200. If left empty, any source IP is assumed and SNAT is performed for all packets.

Interface

LAN / WAN. The network device that handles the traffic to be SNATed or Masqueraded.

Target

Select the appropriate action for matching traffic, i.e. SNAT or Masquerade.

Source IP

The source IP in the packets will be replaced with the source IP specified here.

Source Port

The source port in the packets will be replaced with the source port specified here.

Control Buttons

  • Add: Use this button to add a NAT rule after entering your settings.

  • Clear: Clears the data that has been entered in the NAT rule fields.

Application Control

Important

The steps below are only required if the application control feature is enabled on your AXS Guard appliance.

Configure the applications and protocols that should be allowed through the VPN tunnel.

  1. Go to Application Control > General

  2. Add the desired policies.

  3. Update your configuration.

PAX Application Control Policy

Authentication Policy

The authentication policy determines how users must authenticate to establish a VPN connection (PAX Road Warrior only).

  1. Go to Authentication > Services.

  2. Select the Personal AXS Guard service.

  3. Select the desired authentication policy, e.g. DIGIPASS.

  4. Update your configuration.

PAX Server Authentication Policy

Client-Side Configuration

Factory Default Configuration

Parameter Factory Default Configuration

LAN IP Address

192.168.1.1

Netmask

255.255.255.0

DHCP Server

Enabled

Hostname

pax

admin login / password

login: admin / password: admin (all lower cases)

user login / password

login: user / password: user (all lower cases)

Web-based administration

https://192.168.1.1

Important

PAX units run dedicated software. To prevent tampering, the reset button on the back of each PAX unit is protected by a seal. Removing this seal will void your product warranty. Breaking the seal and pressing the reset button will damage the software beyond repair.

Administrator Levels

Account Description

admin

Provides administrative access without any restrictions.

user

Allows users to reboot the PAX unit, use the Wake-on-LAN feature and establish a VPN connection.

Important

  • Protect the PAX unit with a complex user password to prevent users from rebooting or controlling any settings on the unit.
  • Factory default passwords are overwritten as soon as a PAX unit downloads its configuration from the AXS Guard VPN server.

USB Modem for Mobile Internet

The 4G dongle is an external USB modem that you plug into the PAX unit. The dongle is sold separately. Install the modem as follows:

  1. Ensure the PAX unit is powered off.

  2. Remove the cover from the 4G modem.

  3. Insert your SIM card into the 4G modem and reattach the cover to the modem.

  4. Connect the modem directly to a USB port of the PAX unit or use a USB extension cable.

  5. Power on the PAX unit and wait until it is fully booted.

  6. Log in to the PAX unit to configure your mobile Internet connection.

The following connection modes are supported:

  • 4G LTE

  • 3G UMTS

  • GPRS/EDGE

Setting up your Internet & VPN Connection

Important

Verify the proxy server settings of your Internet browser before you start. The PAX administrator tool may not be accessible if a proxy server is configured.

PAX Login

  1. Configure your client’s network interface so that it automatically receives an IP address from the PAX unit (DHCP).

  2. Once your client has been assigned an IP address, verify if you can ping the PAX unit. Open a command prompt and run the following command: ping 192.168.1.1

  3. Start your favorite Internet browser and go to: https://192.168.1.1.

  4. Accept the self-signed certificate.

  5. Log in with the factory default credentials.

PAX Login Screen

Internet & VPN

Select Settings to configure your Internet and VPN connection; 3G & 4G options will only appear if a USB modem is connected to the PAX unit.

Internet Connection, NTP and VPN Settings

3G & 4G Connection Settings
Parameter Description

Mode

Select the mode which matches your service subscription.

APN

Enter the Access Point Name provided by your operator, e.g. apn.example.com.

PIN

The Personal Identification Number is a four-digit code to enable your SIM card once you have inserted it into your modem and is required to access your operator’s mobile network.

Authentication

Select the authentication protocol which matches your service subscription.

Internet Connection Settings
Parameter Description

Network Time Server

The IP address or FQDN of an Internet Time Server.

Internet Type

Select the appropriate method to connect to the Internet. See the information provided by your ISP.

MTU

The size in bytes of the largest protocol data unit that can be transmitted over the network. The system default is 1500. A table of commonly used MTUs is available online.

Override ISP DNS Servers

Check this option to bypass your ISP’s DNS servers.

VPN Connection Settings
Parameter Description

HQ Server Name or IP

You can specify more than one FQDN or IP address, e.g. if the client needs a VPN connection to several sites or in a failover configuration.

VPN Protocol Type

  • Auto: Use this option to automatically detect the VPN protocol type configured on the AXS Guard VPN server.
  • TCP: Forces the use of TCP when connecting to the AXS Guard VPN server.
  • UDP: Forces the use of UDP when connecting to the AXS Guard VPN server.
  • Certificate Unlock Passphrase

    The passphrase you configured on AXS Guard to export the VPN client certificate.

    The PKCS12 Certificate file

    Extract the .p12 file from the downloaded zip file, then upload the file.

    The VPN tunnel will start automatically after importing your PAX client certificate. Rebooting is allowed, but not required. The PAX unit will automatically check whether a valid client certificate is present.

    PAX Status Overview

    Modem Status LED

    The status LED of the USB modem changes color and flashes to indicate the status of the device.

    • Dark Blue = 3G connection

    • Cyan = 4G connection

    • Green = GPRS

    • Blinking = no connection

    Using the Wake-on-LAN Feature

    The Wake-on-LAN feature is accessible to the user and admin accounts.

    1. Log in to the PAX unit.

    2. Select LAN in the left pane.

    3. Enter the appropriate Wake-on-LAN settings and press the Wake Up button.

    Using Wake-on-LAN

    Parameter Description

    MAC Address

    The MAC address of the PC that must be able to receive magic WOL packets.

    Password (HEX)

    A four or six byte HEX password to be appended to the magic WOL packet. The NIC wakes the system only if the MAC address and password are correct. This is an optional field.

    The Wake Up button is also available in the DHCP menu. When clicked, a WOL packet will be sent to the MAC address associated with the DHCP lease.

    Rebooting your PAX Unit

    1. Log on to the PAX unit.

    2. Click on Reboot Now.

    Rebooting the PAX

    Important

    • The reboot procedure takes about 60 seconds to complete.
    • After starting up or rebooting a PAX unit, wait until the power LED stops flashing.
    • The DMZ LED on the front panel indicates that the booting process is still ongoing. Wait until this LED is no longer illuminated before proceeding.

    Diagnostics and Statistics

    Checking the System Status

    You can check the status of any deployed PAX unit remotely, via the AXS Guard VPN server or locally by logging in to the PAX unit itself.

    The status screen provides information about the connection, the assigned IP address, transmitted and received bytes, license information, etc. The information is self-explanatory.

    On AXS Guard

    1. Log in to the AXS Guard appliance.

    2. Navigate to VPN > PAX > Status.

    Status Information Screen

    On the PAX Unit

    1. Log on to the PAX unit.

    2. Click on the appropriate menu on the left to view the relevant status information, e.g. DHCP.

    PAX Logs

    PAX logs are available on AXS Guard as well as the PAX unit. There are two types of logging on AXS Guard; server and client logging.

    On AXS Guard

    1. Log in to your AXS Guard appliance.

    2. Navigate to VPN > PAX > Logs.

    3. Select the appropriate logs (server or client logs).

    4. Click on the appropriate log date to view the corresponding log file.

    PAX Access Logs

    On the PAX Unit

    Important

    PAX units rotate their logs due to limited system resources (only 16 KB of memory is available). Logs are limited to about 160 lines.

    1. Log on to the PAX unit.

    2. Click on Logging to view the logs.

    Network Statistics

    Network stats can be viewed per network device. This allows you to detect and examine unusual traffic peaks or simply to gather statistical information for any purpose you see fit.

    Running Diagnostics

    1. Log in to the PAX unit.

    2. Click on Home.

    3. Click on Diagnose.

    Running PAX Diagnostics

    Remote Support

    1. Log in to the PAX unit.

    2. Click on Support.

    Initiating a Remote Support Connection

    Troubleshooting

    The PAX unit cannot establish a VPN connection with the corporate AXS Guard VPN server.

    • Ensure that traffic towards port 1194 is allowed on the Internet interface of the corporate AXS Guard server for the selected VPN protocol (TCP or UDP). This is required to initialize the SSL tunnel.
    • Ensure that you have selected the correct VPN protocol on the PAX unit. For example: if the AXS Guard VPN server has been configured to only accept UDP connections on port 1194, either UDP or Auto must be configured on the PAX unit.
    • Ensure that the correct client certificate has been installed on the PAX unit. (Especially if you have several sites to which the PAX unit can connect). Client certificates are derived from server certificates; trying to establish a connection with the wrong certificate is impossible.
    • Verify if the installed PAX certificate isn’t expired.
    • Verify if you exported the right type of certificate (PKCS12).
    • Verify the IP address or the FQDN of the AXS Guard VPN server you are trying to connect to.

    I cannot connect to the PAX web-based configuration tool.

    • Verify the proxy server settings of your Internet browser. If a proxy server is configured, you may not be able to access the PAX administrator tool. Clear the settings and try again.
    • Verify whether your client PC is in the same network range as the PAX unit. The PAX unit downloads its settings from the corporate AXS Guard VPN server. Once the PAX unit has successfully established a VPN connection, its LAN IP address and other configuration settings are automatically updated. This problem is most likely to occur if you changed the default LAN settings of the PAX unit on AXS Guard.

    I cannot connect to the corporate LAN, even though the VPN connection is established.

    • Ensure that the correct routing entries have been added.
    • Verify your firewall settings.
    • Ensure application control is disabled or allows appropriate traffic.

    I cannot connect to the Internet after establishing a VPN connection.

    If all traffic is routed via the VPN, verify if the correct routes and firewall policies have been added to allow Internet traffic.

    The VPN Tunnel disconnects and reconnects frequently.

    • Check the load averages on the PAX unit.
    • Run diagnostics and reboot the unit.
    • If the issue persists after rebooting, contact your PAX vendor.

    Support

    If you encounter a problem

    If you encounter a problem with AXS Guard, follow the steps below:

    1. Check the troubleshooting section of the feature-specific manual.

    2. Check the knowledge base on this site for information about special configurations.

    3. If no solution is available in any of the above sources, contact your AXS Guard vendor.

    Contact Information

    (+32) 15-504-400
    support@axsguard.com